Erosion UPSC

Erosion and Deposition Upsc. 14th June 2021 20th April 2021 by Pravin Babu R. Erosion is the acquisition and transportation of rock debris. When the massive rocks break into smaller fragments due to weathering and other processes, the geomorphic agents like water, glaciers,. In this article, You will read Soil Erosion, Land Degradation, and Soil Conservation for UPSC (Biogeography). Soil erosion and land degradation together, constitute one of the major problems that disturb the ecological balance of the world. The rapid increase in human population has placed a great strain on the land and soil resources resulting. Erosion surface is formed by the last stage of the erosional cycle in the old stage fluvial or other landforms whereas erosional landforms can be formed in any stage of the erosional cycle. The following are the erosional landforms: Erosional landform by running water: River Valleys. Potholes and Plunged pool. River Terrace. Waterfall. Meanders In the previous articles, we were discussing various types of endogenic and exogenic processes. We have also seen that erosion and deposition are some of the exogenic processes. In this post, we are dealing with the geomorphic agents - running water and groundwater, which causes erosion and deposition. They form various erosional (destructional) and depositional (constructional) landforms Soil Erosion. Soil erosion is the loosening and displacement of topsoil from the land due to the action of agents like wind and water.; Soil erosion in nature may be a slow process (geological erosion) or a fast process promoted by human activities like overgrazing, deforestation.; Weathering and erosion lead to the simultaneous process of 'degradation' and 'aggradation'

Land Degradation. Soil degradation is the decline in soil quality caused by its improper use, usually for agricultural, pastoral, industrial or urban purposes. Soil degradation is a serious global environmental problem and may be exacerbated by climate change. It encompasses physical (soil erosion), chemical (salinity and alkalinity, pollution. 1) Explain the main causes and effects of soil erosion in India, as well as prevention or soil erosion techniques?(250 words) Key demand of the question . The question expects us to bring out the reasons why soil erosion happens, the ill impact caused by soil erosion as well as an explanation of the various techniques to control soil erosion

Utility: Geography for UPSC Civil Services General Studies Paper, CAPF, CDS and similar competitive exams. Following topics are covered in the PDF file given at the bottom of this article; Geomorphic Process. Exogenetic forces : LAND WEARING forces : weathering, mass movement, erosion, depositio The Coastal Erosion is the process of wearing away of the land by the sea due to corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and UPSC Final Result 2021 Released for IES/ISS & CGSE Exams.

In the previous articles, we have been discussing various exogenic geomorphic agents like water (running water and groundwater) and glaciers. We have seen the evolution of landforms due to these agents. In this post, we discuss in detail how the wind and the waves cause the evolution of various landforms on the earth surface. Action of Winds: The wind is the main geomorphic agent in the hot. Geomorphic Processes (UPSC Notes):-Download PDF Here Geomorphic processes Geomorphological processes are natural mechanisms of erosion, weathering, and deposition that result in the alteration of the surficial materials and landforms at the surface of the earth Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and removal of beach sediments by high winds, drainage, wave action, wave currents, and tidal currents. Coastal morphodynamics studies the erosion and sediment redistribution in coastal areas. It is caused by corrosion, hydraulic action or abrasion. Coastal erosion can be either a Soil Erosion is an important topic for UPSC Prelims and So to help you prepare for IAS Prelims Geography, we are providing you with a complete note on Soil Erosion in Hindi and English. Soil erosion is defined as the wearing away of the topsoil from the surface. Topsoil is the most fertile portion of the soil because it contains the most organic, nutrient-rich materials

Erosion and Deposition Upsc - Andedg

ADVERTISEMENTS: The concept of geographical cycle of erosion recognises the possibility of obliteration of relief, or planation, during the life history of a landscape, by process of erosion, occurring in a sequence of orderly changes, finally reducing the landscape relief to a minimum. ADVERTISEMENTS: The earth scientists have attempted to interpret geomorphological processes or forces [ Sea Erosion. The landward displacement of the shoreline caused by the forces of waves and currents is termed as erosion. The impact of the event is not always seen immediately, but it is equally important when we consider loss of property that it causes. It takes months or years to note the impact The Convention is an outcome of the OECD / G20 BEPS Project to tackle base erosion and profit shifting through tax planning strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations where there is little or no economic activity, resulting in little or no overall corporate tax being paid

G23-Fluvial Depositional Landforms upsc ias-Drainage

Walter Penck was a German geographer, he studied the Davis erosional cycle model and agreed the most of Davis's thought, but disagreed on process and stages components ( i.e trio of Davis are the structure, process, and stages) of Davis erosional model For, Rapid Revision (RaRe) Series (Prelims+Mains UPSC 2021) - A Free Initiative - Click Here Tag: Brainstorming through Mind-maps , Continental Drift Theory UPSC , General Studies 1 , Geography UPSC , Geomorphology , IASbaba Infographics , Soil Erosion UPSC , UPSC Mind Maps Continental Drift Theory Soil Erosion Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) refers to tax avoidance strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations. This undermines the fairness and integrity of tax systems because businesses that operate across borders can use BEPS to gain a. UPSC Exam Details UPSC Exam Notification The mechanism of marine erosion. The rate of marine erosion depends on the nature of rocks, the amount of rock exposed to the sea, the effects of tides and currents, and human interference. Marine agents of erosion operate in the following ways to transform the coastal landscap

Soil Erosion, Degradation, And Conservation - UPS

ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the Davisian model of geographical cycle of erosion. William Morris Davis, an American geomorphologist, was the first geomorphologist to present a general theory of landform development. In fact, his theory is the outcome of a set of theories and models presented by him from time to time [ Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) is a tax avoidance strategy used by multinational companies by exploiting gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations. In order to combat this, many countries entered into agreements to share tax information with each other to enhance transparency and make. Relevance: Prelims/Mains: G.S paper I: Physical Geography. Fluvial Landforms and Cycle of Erosion. The landforms created as a result of degradational action (erosion) or aggradational work (deposition) of running water are called fluvial landforms. The fluvial processes may be divided into three physical phases - erosion, transportation and deposition UPSC Exam Details UPSC Exam Notification The works of wind and water in the erosion of elevated uplands, transporting the eroded material and depositing them elsewhere has given rise to five distinct kinds of desert landscape. Rocky desert Soil erosion is movement of soil from one place to another due to wind, water or some other erosion agents. According to a 2015 report of Indian institute of remote sensing, the estimated amount of soil erosion that occurred in India was 147 million hectares. Body. Economic effects of soil erosion

Erosion surfaces geography UPSC Geomorphology Physical

  1. The Time Factor - Soil Erosion | UPSC IAS. Most soil develops with geologic slowness - so slowly that changes are almost imperceptible within a human life span. It is possible, however, for a soil to be degraded, either through the physical removal associated with accelerated erosion or through depletion of nutrients, in only a few years
  2. Areas of diverse rock types undergo differential weathering and erosion; easily eroded rocks exhibit more extensive effects of weathering and erosion than the resistant rocks. 3. Slope orientation : The geographic orientation of a shop- whether it faces north, south east, or west- controls the slope's exposure to sun, wind, and precipitation. 4
  3. .अपरदन ( Erosion ) अपरदन भी एक बहिर्जात बल है जो पृथ्वी सतह पर ऊंचे नीचे स्थानों का.
  4. s. In this lecture Anurag Sharma will discuss the role of Exogenetic forces in shaping the Earths surface through the process of Weathering, Erosion, Transportation and Deposition. Also formation of various landforms as a result of these processes. Lecture will be very useful for UPSC CSE and Stare PSCs. Hinglish Geography
  5. Topography: Hilly regions suffer from erosion due to heavy rainfall which causes slip erosion and thus landslides, and from the rivers which flow at a fast speed compared to the plains. The plains, even though they get reduced rainfall, soil erosion occurs due to over flowing of rivers. Rainfall: The sudden and continuous nature of monsoons add in soil erosion, esp. in plains where lack of.

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Running Water and

ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. Davisian Theory: The most popular theory of landform development was given by American geomorphologist William Morris Davis. His concept of geographical cycle (or commonly known as cycle of erosion) provided a genetic classification and systematic description of landforms. According to Davis, geographical cycle is a period of time during which an uplifted landmass [ Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) has emerged as one of the most important challenges for the governments across the world today. The globalization, privatization a. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services Textile industries in India: history, Maharashtra, Gujarat, South India, and UPSC prelim questions. Sugarcane producing areas, shift in location, South India and UPSC mains question; Oil-seeds- types, problems in cultivation, Government schemes to promote it. Tea plantation and UPSC Mains question. Jute- retting, importance in econom What Is Soil Erosion Causes And Effects Of Soil Erosion How To Prevent Soil Erosion Upsc Ias Youtube In 2021 Erosion Soil Cause And Effect . Pin On Save Or Forests Save The Planet . Wind Erosion And Deposition Experiment Youtube Deposition Experiment Stem Camp Fun Science

Soil Erosion: Wind and Water Erosion, Rill and Gully

Mechanism of Desert / Arid Erosion Weathering. Most potent factor in reducing rocks to sand in arid regions. IAS Abhiyan: India's Best Online Website for UPSC IAS Exam Preparation. A Dedicated Team working for the UPSC aspirants to achieve their dream of cracking UPSC CSE. If You have an AIM we have a MISSION to crack it Glacial Landforms and Cycle of Erosion. A glacier is a moving mass of ice at speeds averaging few meters a day. Types of Glaciers: continental glaciers, ice caps, piedmont glaciers and valley glaciers. The continental glaciers are found in the Antarctica and in Greenland. The biggest continental ice sheet in UPSC Quiz - 2021 : IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Quiz 29th JULY 2021; IASbaba's TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing - General Studies Paper 1 Questions [29th JULY,2021] - Day 144; Day 144 - Q 3. What is Digital Jihad? Examine its threat perception in India. (15 Marks) Day 144 - Q 2 Landforms of Wind Erosion in Desert Rock pedestals / Mushroom rocks Formed by the sand blasting effect of winds against any projecting rock masses It wears down the softer layer leading to formation of irregular edges on alternate bands of softer & harder rocks. Grooves & hollows cut in the rock surfaces, carve them int

Land Degradation, Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation PMF IA

water erosion (10.98 percent in 2011-2013) vegetation degradation (8.91 percent) and; wind erosion (5.55 percent). 82% of India's degraded land lies in just nine states/UT - Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Telangana. About: Bonn Challeng Trees provide protection from wind and water. In africa the soil erosion is severe due to the removal of vegetation and overgrazing on the land. Although erosion happens naturally, human activities can make it much worse. The best notes for upsc ias civil services exam. This is a problem in the sahel region of africa. Be the first to comment Erosion The acquisition of materials by the mobile agencies and their transport, i.e. corrasion and transportation are considered to be the integral part of erosion. The principal erosional agents are running water, groundwater, glaciers, wind and coastal waves Erosion is the procedure of weathering and carriage of solids in the natural environment or their source and deposits them elsewhere. It generally occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice, by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity; or by living organisms, such as burrowing animals, in the case of bio-erosion Winds in hot deserts have greater speed which causes erosional and depositional activities in the desert. The landforms which are created by erosional and depositional activities of wind are called Aeolian Landforms. The wind or Aeolian erosion takes place in the following ways, viz. deflation, abrasion, and attrition

Exogenic Forces: Classification - Clear IAS

1) Explain the main causes and effects of soil erosion in

Running water effects of landforms: Erosion, Transportation, and Deposition. Erosion occurs when overland flow moves soil particles and rock materials downslope. These particles and materials carried by erosion is the load of the river. This load acts as a grinding tool. It hels in cutting the bottom and sides of the river bed Denudation is general lowering of earth's surface by agents of erosion such as Wind, Water, Ice, Waves etc. Unlike glaciers & snow, which are confined to cold & temperate latitudes; waves, which acts only on coastlines; winds are only efficient in deserts; the effect of running water is felt all over the world, thus, making it the most important agent of denudation

Erosion is mostly made by precipitation such as rain and snow, and by the wind cyclones, tornadoes, droughts, thunderstorms, rainfall, snowfall, winds, hailstorms. Conclusion Exogenic forces are one of the most important parts of the geography syllabus and at the same time, it is also very tricky to understand as candidates very easily get. Fluvial Erosion 3 distinct categories: Rain splash erosion occurs when the impact of a rain drop loosens and mobilizes particles. Sheet erosion is a process where particles loosened buy rain - splash erosion are transported by runoff water down the slope of a surface. Rill erosion occurs when water concentrates during shee The major process of land degradation is soil erosion (due to water and wind erosion), which contributes to over 71% of the land degradation in the country. Soil erosion due to water alone contributes to about 61.7% and that by wind erosion to10.24%. The other processes include problems of water logging and salinity/alkalinity

Explained: Geography- Landform Types, Weathering, Erosio

Erosion & upliftment go together; initial stages have rapid upliftment: Long crustal stability after initial uplift: Continuous upliftment which stops very late in the cycle: Compared to erosion, upliftment happens in very small period: Span of upliftment is more or less same as that of erosion: Structure, time & process affect the erosion The benefit of erosion control is that it helps in decreasing the speed or the momentum of the wind, it provides armor to the surface of the soil so as to prevent soil particles from being lifted away. It protects the agricultural fields and the areas which are protected by the shelter-belts. The other important role played by these shelter. UPSC geography optional syllabus is also given in detail below. Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims. As the UPSC exam is concerned, geography is a widely chosen subject by the candidates. In UPSC prelims general studies paper geography is included as well as in the main exam's GS paper 1 Denudation :-It is the general lowering of the earth's surface. This takes place because the agents of erosion wear away the rocks and transport the eroded debris to lower land or right down to the sea. Running Water is the most important single agent of denudation. Consequent Streams :-The initial stream that exist as a consequence of the slope

OPSC STUDY: Geography Optional (UPSC & OPSC) Test Series Module: P a g e | 6 OPSC STUDY [ Contact at: 9348274675( Telegram/ WhatsApp)] Visit Our Website: www.opscstudy.com A gentle gradient, accentuated by horizontal action and deposition, reduces the erosion intensity. A thick layer of sediment represents the earlier erosion activity Pillar Two (also referred to as the Global Anti-Base Erosion or GloBE proposal) calls for the development of a co- ordinated set of rules to address ongoing risks from structures that allow MNEs to shift profit to jurisdictions where they are subject to no or very low taxation experiment Weathering Erosion and Deposition 4th Grade Science Lessons: Erosion and Deposition Experiments! Rock Cycles Video Series Part 1: Weathering and Erosion Let's Draw Weathering-Erosion \u0026 Deposition! Weathering , Erosion and Deposition | UPSC CSE English | Crack UPSC CSE/IAS 2020 | Venkatesh Emani Weathering and Erosion Song Weatherin UPSC: The UPSC IAS Mains Optional papers carry a total weightage of 500 marks. The optional papers are divided into two papers - Papers I & II carrying 250 marks each. For the UPSC Main exam, the. Environmental and Ecological Implications of Green Revolution | UPSC - IAS. Environmental and ecological problems that emerged out of the cultivation of the High Yielding Varieties are. Depletion of forests, Deforestation. Salinization, Water-logging, Depletion of underground water-table, Soil erosion, Decline in soil fertility, (pollution.

Coastal Erosion: Reason and Measures to deal with coastal

UPSC CSE/IAS 2020 ¦ Venkatesh Emani Weathering and Erosion Song Weathering and Erosion Basics WEATHERING AND EROSION ¦¦ SCIENCE VIDEO FOR KIDS Weathering and Erosion Erosion Read-Along ANSWER KEY. WEATHERING. is the process of breaking rocks, sand, and clay down into smaller pieces called Majority of the members OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (including India) International Tiger Day 2021 July 29 UPSC. July 29, 2021. Russia's Nauka Module For UPSC. July 28, 2021. China-Pak Joint actions in Afghanistan Geography is a combination of Science and Humanity subjects. We are very familiar with geography from Childhood, For Example, we know the things like Rainfall, Mountain, Rivers, seasons etc., from Childhood.; As of UPSC results, Geography is one of the high success rate subjects.; Geography as an optional has a high success rate and easy availability of study material and resources

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Wind and Waves - Clear IA

Preventing the soil loss because of erosion or reduced fertility caused by over usage, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination is known as soil conservation. In other words, we can say that a handful of the technique used for the preservation of soil is soil conservation The cycle of erosion was a model for stream erosion and landscape development proposed by William Morris Davis in the late 19th century. Davis' Stages in the fluvial cycle of erosion published in 1909 defined a young, mature, and old sequence in the development of river valleys and the landscape the rivers were eroding. Hi Soil erosion occurs when the rate of removal of soil by water and or wind exceeds the rate of soil formation. Soil erosion is defined as the movement of soil components, especially surface-litter and topsoil from one place to another. Soil erosion results in the loss of fertility because it is the topsoil layer which is fertile Gully Erosion . Rill Erosion - When the running water makes finger shaped grooves all over the area due to removal of soil with water. Gully Erosion - In this type of Erosion, the rills are enlarged and deepens, making land unsuitable for cultivation. Gullies formed over a large area gives rise to badland topography (Chambal Ravines). When a gully bed is eroded further, the bed gradually.

Methods and Techniques of Soil Conservation. Soil Conservation is the name given to a handful of techniques aimed at preserving the soil. Soil loss and loss of soil fertility can be traced back to several causes, including over-use, erosion, salinization, and chemical contamination Soil erosion control is the process of minimizing the potential for soil erosion. Erosion control measures have proven to reduce erosion potential by stabilizing exposed soil and reducing surface runoff flow velocity. Erosion and sediment control. Weathering and Erosion ncert study material for all competitive written exams that has physical geography in their syllabi. To the point facts, meaning and definition with pictures and images for better understand of competitive exams aspirants so that they can score maximum marks from weathering and Erosion topics questions asked in exam UPSC Current Affairs: An idea on taxation that is worth a try, The Hindu article explained by Rau's IAS. A number of multinational companies shift their profits from high tax jurisdiction to tax haven countries such as Mauritius, Singapore, Hongkong, Cayman Islands, Panama, Bermuda etc. This is referred to as Base Erosion profit Shifting. Sun temple at Konark situated at Puri on the coastline of Odisha. The temple is attributed to king Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty about 1250 CE. What remains of the temple complex has the appearance of a 100-foot (30 m) high chariot with immense wheels and horses, all carved from stone. Once over 200 feet (61 m) high

Comprehensive and compact Daily current affairs for UPSC civil service exam (IAS/IPS exam) for the date - 03 July 2021 with subject classifications. The majority of the members of OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting including India adopted a high-level statement containing an outline of a consensus solution to. Base Erosion and Profit Sharing (BEPS) Posted on : 21 Feb 2020. Views: 661. OECD has proposed a new multilateral framework on taxation of new-age companies such as Netflix, Uber, Google and Facebook, which have a large customer base in developing countries like India as well as the EU As far as the requirements of the UPSC examination is concerned, you would have to focus on the following dimensions: Bilateral Investment Treaty and Model BIT (Already covered in DNS dated Feb 16, 2021) Concept of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)- Concept and Rationale According to the Court, furnishing raw marks will cause problems as pleaded by the UPSC such as non-appreciation of marking standards, erosion of faith and credibility in the system and challenges. Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem attracting the attention of many across the globe. It is a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat, bare areas; dry, sandy soils; or anywhere the soil is loose, dry, and finely granulated. Wind erosion damages land and natural vegetation by removing soil from one place and depositing it in another

NCERT Notes: Geomorphic Processes - Erosion, Weathering

Coastal Erosion - Best UPSC Coaching Institute in Delh

Rocks - Geography study Material & Notes

Gully Reclamation Techniques. Various techniques used to control gully erosion around the world have been discussed elsewhere (e.g. Bennett 1939; Morgan 1986; Hudson 1995). Apart from the work of Milton (1971), there appears to be a lack of detailed published information on methods of gully reclamation in Victoria, and the range of measures. 1. amount of sand available. 2. direction and force of wind, 3. an obstruction in the path of the wind e.g. a bush, a stone or a dead animal. · As long as the wind is strong enough to carry the sand, the sand dunes are mobile and they keep on shifting from one place to another. · If vegetation or a line of trees starts growing on the dunes. Geomorphic cycle, also called geographic cycle, or cycle of erosion, theory of the evolution of landforms.In this theory, first set forth by William M. Davis between 1884 and 1934, landforms were assumed to change through time from youth to maturity to old age, each stage having specific characteristics. The initial, or youthful, stage of landform development began with.

Soil Erosion and Its Conservation : Other State Exam

LANDFORMS - GEOGRAPHY NOTES. A landform is a feature on the Earth's surface that is part of the terrain. There are major landforms such as Mountains, Plains, Hills and Plateaus. Minor landforms include buttes, canyons, valleys, and basins Principles of Physical Geography: UPSC Mains Exam Geography Optional Paper - 1and other competitive exams. This book is essential for students preparing for the Civil Services examinations, Principles Of Physical Geography is a comprehensive book on physiography for undergraduate students of geography. Topic Covered: 1 In geology and geomorphology, an erosion surface is a surface of rock or regolith that was formed by erosion and not by construction (e.g. lava flows, sediment deposition) nor fault displacement.Erosional surfaces within the stratigraphic record are known as unconformities, but not all unconformities are buried erosion surfaces.Erosion surfaces vary in scale and can be formed on a mountain. After upliftment completes erosion starts that shape the landforms into their features.-- His assumption that the erosion starts only after upliftment is over is criticized. -- According to Davis, the main and only agent of erosion are rivers. Hence his theory is a fluvial cycle of erosion. 2020 - Security Questions in UPSC Mains UPSC Geologist 2021 Exam. Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is going to conduct Geologists exam. This exam is held once in a year for two categories the 1st one is Geological Survey of India (GSI), and 2nd One is Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). Candidates may get the complete details about UPSC Geologist Syllabus through this page

Useful notes on Geographical Cycle of Erosio

Comprehensive and compact Daily current affairs for UPSC civil service exam (IAS/IPS exam) for the date - 28 July 2021 with subject classifications UPSC CSE CSAT Test Series with Detailed Answer Solution Spiral-Bound (ENGLISH MEDIUM) ₹ 499.00 ₹ 319.00. CSAT, Pramesh Original, Test Series. Buy Now Buy Now. Rated 2.56 out of 5 UPSC Optional Subjects: Agriculture Syllabus. Paper-I. Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing. Kinnaur Incident and Degradation of Environment. Relevance: Environment Context: Following the tragic deaths of nine people in a landslide in Himachal Pradesh's Kinnaur region, a debate about environmental degradation in this ecologically fragile mountainous terrain has gained momentum. More about the news. A recent study- Impacts of Hydropower Development and Compensatory Afforestation on.

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Lagoon : • Sometimes due to deposition of waves and currents both the ends of the bar join to enclose a part of the sea water between the coast and the bar. • This enclosed part of the sea forms a lake of saline water. • This saline water lake is called a lagoon. • Sometimes the lagoons are formed due to wave erosion also UPSC IFS Agriculture Engineering Optional Syllabus for Paper-I: SECTION A. Soil and Water Conservation: Scope of soil and water conservation. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion According to the Data provided by UPSC, the Maximum number of Aspirants writing UPSC Mains Exams every year are from Geography Optional background. Even being this much popular, quality guidance for the preparation of this optional is still far from the reach of common students. Normal / Fluvial Cycle of Erosion (Davis, Penk and King) and. 3. Construction activities:- Construction of roads and buildings, excavation, mining has resulted in huge amount of soil erosion.This makes the soil expose to natural forces of wind and rain. Construction is also synonymous to urbanization. On one hand, development of cities and mega-cities is seeing as a progressive sign of a nation, and on the other hand rapid urbanization results in soil.